Presented by the Laurens County Historical Society, Dublin, Georgia. For questions and information, please contact Scott B. Thompson, Sr. at dublinhistory@yahoo.com.

Thursday, February 27, 2014

AN INSIDE VIEW OF SLAVERY

Dr. Charles Grandison Parsons, an ardent abolitionist, abhorred slavery.  The Maine physician wanted to personally see what slavery was really like.  So, in the autumn of 1852, he left his comfortable home in the Far North  and set out to go to the South to conduct what he called, “A Tour Among the Planters.”

In his writings and speeches, Parsons, who fought for temperance as well, saw slavery as a sin and a blight on the nation.  In his travels throughout the South, Dr. Parsons wanted to interview both master and slave.  Along his way, he kept meticulous notes which he assembled into his landmark 1855 work, “A Inside View of Slavery.”  Abolitionists praised the work, while Southerners marked it as pure propaganda. One of his stops was a visit to the home of Governor George M. Troup of Laurens County.

Focusing mainly on Georgia in his writings, Dr. Parsons, a graduate of Bowdoin College,  arrived on November 22, 1852 in Savannah, where he first visited with relatives before setting out on his travels.  

During one of his adventures into the interior of Georgia, Parsons became deathly ill.  After recovering, he set out along the Darien-Milledgeville Road, the coast to capital highway which ran along the northern bank of the Altamaha and the eastern bank of the Oconee River.

His prime target was the venerable George M. Troup, one of the states’ largest slaveholders. Troup was an early leader of State Rights in America after serving Georgia as a Congressman, Senator and Governor.

Parsons arrived at the Troup home, known as Valdosta, where he found the former governor eating his early afternoon dinner.    Troup, as he invariably did,  invited his guest to dine with him.  Troup was feasting on a meal of cornbread, bacon and corned beef.  When Troup learned of the doctor’s feeble health, he ordered a servant to prepare his visitor a pot of coffee, instead of his normal fare of spirits of all kinds.

Parsons observed, “ The upper part of a pig's head — "the minister's face"— was on the table. The ears had not been cut off previous to baking, and they were so very long, and stood up so straight, and wore a mark so singular, that 1 was probably eyeing it too sharply to seem respectful.”

Troup facetiously remarked, "You see I am an honest man, sir, for that is my own mark in the pig's ear."

As the interview unfolded, the doctor discovered that Troup was a typical large slaveholder, who had been unfortunate with his sons.

Troup’s slaves, which numbered approximately one thousand, were spread among  several plantations, Rosemont and the Mitchell Place in Montgomery County and Valdosta, Vallambrosa and the Thomas Cross Roads plantations in Laurens County.  The Montgomery County plantations were originally managed by his brother, Dr. Robert L. Troup.

“He led a dissipated life, and found an early grave. I was told that he confessed to a minister, a few days prior to his death, that he had terrible remorse of conscience in the reflection that many of his own children would be left as his brother's slaves.” Parsons wrote of the late, lamented physician.

In his will, Dr. Troup left his slaves to the governor and his son, George M. Troup, Jr.  The younger Troup, although a graduate of the University of Georgia and an officer during the Indian Wars of 1836, was somewhat of a ne’er-do-well.

Of the junior Troop, Parsons noted, “ Troup's eldest son succeeded his brother as the manager of the lower plantation, where he lived a few years in dissipation, and died from its effects. His youngest, and now only son, was sent to take the place of the first, and he followed in his footsteps. After being wrecked both in morals and mind, he was sent, as I heard, to the Insane Hospital, — and I suppose he was there at the time of my visit.”

Parsons was impressed, if not stunned, as he described some of the slaves in the Troup household, a series of disjointed, unimpressive and atypical of a mansion befitting such a man of Troup’s standing  in society.

“If the sons of his Excellency were as fine looking as any one of the bright boys I saw about his house, he surely had good reason to lament their untimely end. I saw no young men on that river who appeared so intellectual, and so highly endowed with natural qualities, as some of the mulatto servants in Governor Troup's family,” the author recorded.

“They seemed devoted to his happiness, but I ascertained that they fully appreciated their liability to a worse fate after his death, — as he was far advanced in years, and his only heirs were two maiden daughters, who would not be likely to keep the slaves together long after they should be left upon their hands,” Parsons continued.

“Two of the whitest boys walked at my side as I rode to the gate, about fifty rods from the old house, — and I felt so deep an interest in their welfare that I took the liberty to converse with them in relation to their situation,” said the traveler who found an instant affection for the youngsters.

"You have an easy life here, boys," the physician  remarked and added, "You are lucky to find a home so good as this."

"Oh, yes, master," one of the boys sadly replied.  “But we don't know how soon our master may die, and then we shall be sold away, and our lot may then be much harder," one of the young boys commiserated.

Parsons replied, "Well, boys, I would not borrow trouble, but would rather be thankful for so many blessings. You fare so much better than the slaves generally do, that you ought to be happy."

The young boy concluded, "I know that, master," replied one of them, "but still we cannot help thinking what we may have to suffer by and by."

As he resumed his travels, the Yankee doctor counseled the boys, “ Well, be good boys, — don't drink whiskey, — take good care of your old master, — always do right, and you will be sure to fare the better for it. Good evening!"

During his travels in the South, what Charles Parsons observed had a profound influence on his life.  Parsons died in 1864, living just long enough to see Abraham Lincoln  issue the Emancipation Proclamation, but not long enough to the see the passage of the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.

In summarizing the results of his travels, Dr. Parsons declared, “No man can visit the South for the first time without having his views of slavery, whatever they may be, to some extent modified” 

THE SNOWFALL OF THE CENTURY, ALMOST



          In our distant past, newspaper reports of substantial snow falls were relatively uncommon.  The accounts and consequences of those ancient snowstorms are few and far in between.  Because of our geographical location and prevailing meteorological conditions, snow falls of more than a couple of inches are somewhat rare.  In order for us to have snow, we have to the right combination of warm moist air and cold air converging at the same time.  It is only in the last fifteen years that more measurable snowfalls have been on the rise.


This is the story of the snowstorm of February 25, 1914, said to be the greatest of the 20th Century.  And so it was until February 9, 1973, when all of the requisite  weather conditions came together at the critical time leaving Laurens County under 14 or more inches of snow. 

The greatest snowfall of the 19th Century in Laurens County came on February 13, 1899.  It was perhaps the coldest day ever recorded in the history of the county when temperatures fell to at least five degrees below zero.  Thirty mile per hour winds blew across four inches of snow and caused the wind chill temperature to drop to thirty-three degrees below zero.  

The 1899 storm had no negative effect on Valentine’s Day activities.  In point of fact, the day was transformed into a sentimental journey into the past like the country’s  northern regions when the day was once celebrated with sleigh riding and snow ball throwing.  Instead of following the ancient custom of drawing a name of girl and pinning a badge on their shoulders, the young men of Dublin took to the streets to celebrate and play.

Few people had snow sleds.  The ingenious and clever boys went to work, improvising by attaching a cracker box to barrel staves for a sled.  Others took wheels from their buggies, ran the axle through wood and had sleighs pulled by horses.  Ben Hooks had the most fun.  He constructed a sleigh drawn by four horses with a wagon body filled with hay.  All day long, the kids rode up and down the streets throughout the winter wonderland. Boys were boys as sporadic and random snowball skirmishes broke out in all parts of the city.  

On a cold Tuesday evening on February 24, 19145, snow began to fall north of town in Milledgeville, which would receive 9 inches in all.  All during the night and throughout the day snow flakes covered the ground.  As the snow slowed, temperatures plummeted down to 20 degrees.  

Not a hint of snow was in the short term forecast from weather experts in Washington, D.C.. In fact, fair weather was predicted for Dublin and Laurens County.   When it began to sleet right around midnight, no one had a thought of any dumping of a white blanket of snow.  The previous snowfall on Thanksgiving Day in 1912 was primarily remarkable and puzzling, but all too fleeting.

Bands of snow extended from New Orleans, which hadn’t seen snow since 1901 to Charleston.  Millions of people living in the northern half of the nation were shivering and suffering in the grips of yet another severe snowy storm. 

Dublin’s total snow fall by the time the Courier-Herald was published stood at three inches. By the end of the day, that depth would double to six inches and climbing at 6:00 p.m.  -  a record which stood for nearly sixty years until the Great Snow of 1973.  The snow fall that day, 100 years ago,  still stands as the second greatest recorded snowfall in the 200 years of Laurens County’s history. 

Not used to such heavy snow, nearly all businesses ceased operation.  Students were excused from classes.  There were few, if any traffic jams.  In 1914, traffic jams in Dublin were almost as rare as snow falls.   Most people walked everywhere in town during those days. 

Snow fall totals seemed to heaviest from the southwestern part of Central Georgia northeast to Augusta.  Sandersville’s paper boasted a state high of ten inches, while neighboring Tennille’s yardsticks dipped only 8 inches from the ground to the top of the snow. 

Baxley to our southeast reported a single inch, while Americus and Fitzgerald each reported a half foot of the white, wet stuff.  Macon’s measurers came up with roughly the same half foot levels.  

It was a day when any kid who was allowed to spent the day frolicking in the snow.   Over the next century, we have had some snowfalls of 1-3 inches, usually no more than two or three of them in each decade.

February 25, 1914 was an exception.  It was the greatest, well almost the greatest, snowfall of the 20th Century.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

COL. JOHN WHITEHEAD

THEY CALLED HIM "MR. DEATH"


       John Whitehead had the "right stuff."  When it came to flying jet aircraft, he had no fear.  Whitehead flew higher and faster than any African American had ever done before.  Almost every hot shot pilot had a nickname.  In the case of John Whitehead, the United States Air Force's first African-American experimental test pilot,  they called him "Mr. Death," not because of his daring skills in soaring through the stratosphere, but because of his gaunt, shrunken face and skeleton-like frame.

John Lyman Whitehead, Jr. was born on May 14, 1924 in Lawrenceville, Virginia, a small town on the border of North Carolina.  As a child, John would spend some time in and around Dublin.

John Whitehead attended West Virginia State College prior to entering the U.S. Army Air Force.  After training at Tuskegee University, Whitehead was assigned as a pilot  with the 301st Fighter Squadron of the 332nd Fighter Group of the Tuskegee Airmen.  The 301st primarily performed escort duty on bombing runs over enemy positions in Europe.

"It was an experiment that was established that was supposed to fail, Whitehead said in a 1984  interview with the Portland Oregonian. 

"But the people who were involved in it weren't going to let it fail," added the veteran pilot, who volunteered in the service after his 18th birthday. 

"I had rather fly through this war instead of walk through," recalled Whitehead, who would enter flight training at Tuskegee shortly after his 19th birthday. 

Lt. Whitehead, who earned his wings in 1944,  finally made it to Europe in March 1945, a few months before Germany surrendered.  As he reported for duty at an airfield near Foggia, Italy, his commanding officer, Captain Bob Friend, observed the five-foot, six-inch, 121-pound pilot's skeleton like frame.  

Friend exclaimed, "My Gawd!  What have they sent us  now as a replacement, Mr. Death?" an Ebony Magazine writer wrote in the January 1951 cover story.

Whitehead liked the name and painted it on the nose of his plane.

In his brief stint with the 332nd, nicknamed the "Red Tails" by the bomber crews who were grateful for their fighter support and the "Black Birdmen" by their Germain fighter opponents, Lt. Whitehead was only able to fly nineteen missions.    Although credited officially with only two kills, Whitehead saw plenty of action, some of it nearly fatal.

After his first hitch in the Air Force was over, Whitehead returned stateside to enroll at West Virginia University.  In 1948, the former "Black Eagle," received a degree in Industrial Engineering.  
Whitehead was recalled to active duty in the now integrated  Air Force in 1948.  As a pioneer in the training of jet pilots, Whitehead was a stern, but patient, instructor.   In his tenure at Williams Air Force Base in Utah (1948-1951,)  all but one of his students received their certification as a jet pilot.

President Truman's Executive Order  9981 mandated equal treatment in the Armed Forces although nearly all of Whitehead's students were white.  


Lefty Selenger, "ranking officer at Williams Air Force Base told Ebony Magazine,  "Whitehead has no race problem. He is better liked than most of us by the white boys."  

Whitehead helped to train the Class of 1952 Charlie, which included some four hundred men who would serve as pilots in Korea and Vietnam.  It was during this time when John Whitehead met Roy Black, a trainee from Lithia Springs, Georgia.

In his book, "52-Charlie," Edward Gushee in describing the relationship between the two best friend pilots, Roy "Blackie" Black and John "Whitey" Whitehead, wrote, "Blackie flew an additional twenty missions and when his tour was over, resigned his commission and returned to Georgia.  John Whitehead, who had been raised in Dublin, Georgia, less than a hundred miles from where "Blackie" was born, stayed in the Air Force as a career officer.

After the Korean War, John Whitehead worked as a liaison between the Air Force and Boeing Aircraft and Northrop, two of the country's largest producers of jet aircraft.   Lt. Col. Whitehead  ended his 28- year career with the Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base in 1974. 

In his nearly three-decade career with the Air Force, Lt. Col. John Whitehead is credited with being the Air Force's first African American test pilot and the first African-American jet pilot instructor.  His heroic and dedicated service resulted in him being awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross with five oak leaf clusters, the Air Medal with seven  oak leaf clusters, along with the Army Commendation Medal and the Air Force Commendation Medal.

John Whitehead, who flew millions and millions of miles in the service of his country,  died on September 6, 1992 . He was laid to rest beneath a bronze marker in the Riverside National Cemetery in Sacramento, California.

Col. Whitehead, like Col. Marion Rodgers, another California Tuskegee Airman who once, albeit temporarily lived in Laurens County, joins Major Herndon Cummings to form a trio of former Laurens Countians who called themselves Tuskegee Airmen and who served their country with pride.  

Presently, a bill is scheduled to be introduced into the Georgia legislature  to honor these three heroes by naming the intersection of the 441 By Pass and U.S. Highway 80 West in their honor.    



OBIE WALKER

"The Black Boxcar"

In this corner from Cochran, Georgia, Obie Walker!  He was big. He was strong. He jabbed his opponents with machine gun like speed.   Obie Walker thought he could whip every boxer in the world.  But, the Georgia Goliath never got the chance to fight the world champions Max Baer or Joe Louis.  This is the story of a local man, who once reigned as the Prince of boxing in Europe and among his race, was considered a world champion.

Obie Diah Walker was born in Bleckley County, Georgia on September 19, 1911. Before the age of nine, Obie was living with his maternal grandparents, Frank and Elizabeth Powell of the Frazier community.

Obie moved to Atlanta  as a way  to increase his chances for success as a boxer. His first of 100 professional fights took place some eighty five years ago  on February 16, 1929  against "Battling Connell"  in the Auditorium in Atlanta, Georgia.  The hometown fighter had little trouble against Connell, who lost all three of his career professional fights, two of them to the Brute from Bleckley.

Walker won four straight bouts, some people say eighteen,  until his first loss on points to Happy Hunter on February 3, 1930.  

The "Black Boxcar," built like a bank safe,"  would not lose again in thirty fights (28-0-2)  until he lost a close decision on points to Don "Red" Barry at the Arena in Philadelphia.  His last win in America came against George Godfrey, to capture the title of  the Colored Heavyweight Champion.  

That is when Walker's manager Jefferson Davis Dickson made the decision to take his fighter, with a record of 32-2-2, to take on the best fighters in Europe.  Some say that Walker had fought at least sixty other undocumented bouts with colored fighters in addition to his three dozen professional fights.     

The first European  fight came in Sallewagram in Paris, France.  Walker knocked out Belgian giant Louis Verbeeren in the last round of a ten-round match on Groundhog Day in 1934. Fighting primarily in French and Swiss arenas, Walker knocked out all of his first nine opponents. Only one of the ko's came after the third round.  After losing two of his next three matches, Obie, trained by former Argentine champion Norman Tomasulo,  won nine of ten before leaving Europe on a losing note in June 1936 with a defeat on points.

Named "Enfant Terrible "  by his adoring French fans who stormed the headquarters of Joe Louis following the defeat of Max Baer, Walker was praised  for his strikingly unorthodox and  innovative style.  

In commenting on a possible match with Lewis, Walker said, "I ain't been asked yet.  And, I ain't askin." 

Walker confidently  commented on a match with Lewis, the Brown Bomber, "There ain't no fighter in the world who doesn't make a mistake during a fight. Me, I just stand around and wait for that mistake.  

"I can take it.  And, when Louis makes that mistake, I'll swat him," the Georgia boxer proclaimed.  

As he traveled Europe and the states, Walker, a quiet man who could not write and could only read picture books,  showed off his strength by going to carnivals and picking up the strong men and their hefty weights - all at the same time. 

Obie Walker firmly believed that World Champion Joe Louis and he could beat any boxer in the world.  Walker  yearned to get his chance just to fight Louis or Louis' arch rival Max Schmelling, of Germany.  

"Let Louis clean up the states. I'll clean up Europe. Then we will get together and see what for," Walker once proclaimed. 

Walker's first bout upon his return to the United States came in Municipal Stadium in Philadelphia.  Walker had won a fight at Shibe Park, the home of the Philadelphia Athletics, in 1933. Municipal Stadium  was the same outdoor arena where Gene Tunney captured the world heavyweight boxing title from Jack Dempsey. The bout came at the home of the Philadelphia Phillies, where Rocky Marciano knocked out Jersey Joe Walcott in 1952 to win boxing's heavyweight championship.

Walker pulled himself off the mat and won six consecutive fights in his home territory of Georgia, Florida and South Carolina before losing half of his next eight fights.  Seven straight wins brought Walker to the climax of his career.  No longer the Cochran Colossus he once was, Walker, who had returned to his home at 514 Larkin Street,  lost four of his last six fights before the beginning of World War II.  Walker hung up his gloves after a failed comeback attempt after the war when he lost to Elza Thompson at Dorsey Park in Miami in March 1946 in a close 10-round decision. 

Atlanta Georgian sportswriter Ed Danforth wrote of Walker, "Walker became the toast of Paris.  He knocked cold every topnotcher he met on the continent.  Max Schmelling shrewdly dodged him, the best of the Englishmen too, sidestepped the squatty brown man who carried lightning bolts in both fists.  Competent critics say he could have knocked out Schmelling, Joe Louis and Jim Braddock in one night with the space of ten rounds. 

In the 100 recorded bouts of his twelve- year career, the five- foot nine- inch Obie Walker compiled a record of 77 wins, 16 losses and 5 draws. Walker's powerful arms knocked out 53 of his opponents.  Remarkably, Walker was never himself knocked out - a feat matched only by a few dozen American professional boxers in the history of the sport.

On May 4, 1989, at the age of seventy-seven, Obie Walker unceremoniously died in his adopted hometown of Atlanta.  There is no adequate marker to designate the  final resting place of this once proud and powerful Heavyweight Colored Champion of the World.  Maybe now, many more people will know his story, the story of the Black Boxcar, aka the Bleckley Behemoth, who in a  hundred fights never went down to the mat for the count.






Friday, February 14, 2014

EARTHQUAKES IN EAST CENTRAL GEORGIA


Just A Little Shakin’ Goin’ On

When most people think of earthquakes, they think of trembling in Southern California, volcanic Pacific islands and third world countries where masses of people reside. But if you think that the area in which we live is immune from tremors emanating from deep within the Earth, you are wrong.  For nearly two centuries, scientists have recorded earthquake activity which has affected, mostly in a minor way, the lands of east-central Georgia.   In the last half century in particular, earthquake monitors have detected even the slightest quiver in the Earth’s crust just below the Fall Line.

The first recorded sensation of an earthquake in our area came in 1811 and 1812 in what was called the New Madrid Series.  These quakes were centered in Madrid, Missouri, but could be strongly felt in the Georgia capital of Milledgeville.  The strongest of these quakes registered 6.25 on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, a reading which would indicate  slight damage to buildings and movement of heavy furniture.   Sixty years later on June 17, 1872,  a Category V quake centered in Milledgeville trembled the former capital.

On November 1, 1875, an earthquake measuring six on the Mercalli scale emanated from the South Carolina/Georgia line.  Just before 10:00 that evening, the quake was felt all over East Central Georgia.  In Macon, there were reports of buildings jarring perceptibly. The vibrations, which lasted only two seconds, were followed by what was described as “the detonations of distant artillery.”    Accounts from Milledgeville reported “a heavy rumbling” resonating from southeast to northwest.  Since there are no extant written accounts from Dublin, little is known of the quake’s effect on our community other than a similar slight jostling.

One hundred and eighteen years ago tonight on August 31, 1886, the most powerful earthquake to ever strike the southeastern United States struck South Carolina, between Charleston and Summerville.  The quake, which measured an intensity of ten, nearly destroyed the ancient port city and its suburban resort neighbor to the west.   The quake was so powerful that it was felt as far away as Boston, Chicago and Cuba.

The Dublin Post reported on the same night at nine o’clock, “houses swayed perceptibly, doors opened, trees trembled and even the Earth was so disturbed that pedestrians found it difficult to travel.”  The shock was sufficient to evoke a clatter which awoke many who were asleep. Church services were in progress when the quake began.  Fearing the “wrath of God” was thrust upon them, the worshipers hastily vacated the sanctuaries.    The event was the topic on everyone’s mind the following day. Rumors and true accounts of some of the more hilarious details of the commotion, although plentiful, were unfortunately not published in the newspaper.   Recent scientific studies have determined that the intensity in Dublin was measured at or above seven, which was capable of causing slight damage in ordinary structures, considerable damage in poorly built buildings and moderate damage to chimneys.

Accounts of the earthquake were reported from all over the region.  Though the times vary from as early as 8:52 in Macon to 9:00 in Cochran,  all reports of the effects of the phenomenon were similar.  Most witnesses stated that the sound which preceded the shaking moved from east to west or northeast to southwest.  A second shock occurred less than sixty seconds after the first jolt.  In Savannah, which was fairly close to the epicenter of the quake, building damage was moderate. Some loss of life and injuries were reported.  It was noted that Lucy Foster was “scared to death.”   Residents of Tybee Island suffered more damage, including moderate damage to the historic lighthouse on the barrier island.   People in Augusta remembered four distinct shocks, followed by more after shocks the following morning.


The quake struck Eastman at 8:55 with “heavy shocks.”  A couple of a dozen miles to the northwest, bottles were said to have been shaken off the shelves in Hawkinsville during the quake, which lasted 20 to 25 seconds.  Cochran residents recounted that the shaking lasted 30 seconds, but consisted of two separate shocks, the second being greater than the first one.   In McRae, houses trembled and windows rattled, with little if any damage.   Folks ran from their homes in Chauncey during the “violent shake.”

On October 22, 1912, the ground beneath Dubliners shook for several seconds.  The sharp quake, reminiscent of the great Charleston earthquake, was preceded by a sound similar to thunder.  There was a severe  shaking and rattling of buildings and houses, but no damage was reported.   Witnesses reported the sound of a loud noise around 8:15 p.m.  The Dublin City Council adjourned its session to flee to the streets in a panic.  The fire department jumped into action thinking that a large explosion had just occurred somewhere in the city.   The October seismological event followed a slight Category V quake in Savannah the previous June.

In more recent times, the monitoring of earthquake activity has vastly improved.  On March 13, 1964, a quake measuring 4.4 was centered 1 mile west of Plant Branch on Lake Sinclair.  Activity in the area continued in 1965 and again a decade later in 1975.  Beginning in early December 1982 and ending in May 1983, a series of more than one hundred earthquakes occurred in western Twiggs County.  With instruments which could measure the most imperceptible shifts in the Earth’s crust, Georgia Tech scientists recorded thirty eight-seismological events in a twenty-day period ending on Christmas Day.   The strongest of these events was measured at 2.8 on the Richter Scale.   Most of the earthquakes were unnoticed by the locals and were centered between U.S. Highway 80, Interstate Highway 16, Sgoda Road and Alligator Creek.  Earthquakes also occurred in 1985 between Goat Town and Hebron in western Washington County and in 1976 off Highway 117 in southwestern Jefferson County.

On November 18, 2000, a 3.5 quake emanated from the woods of the Baldwin State Forest along the eastern margin of U.S. Highway 441 about a mile north of the Wilkinson County line in Baldwin County.  The last two earthquakes to strike Georgia happened in April and July, 2003.  A moderate 4.9 earthquake shook the northwestern corner of Georgia on the 29th of April.  Closer to home on July 13, 2003, a 3.6 quake reverberated throughout the woods of Candler County about four miles north of Cobbtown.

For those of us who live in the upper boundary of the Coastal Plain, we are, for the  most part, safe from the intensive jarring and cataclysmic destruction of massive earthquakes. But sooner or later, there may come a day when, just for an instant, you might feel the ground quiver under your feet.  So remember that it is nothing to worry about, or that somewhere, not too far away, there’s a whole lot of shakin’ goin’ on!

Sunday, February 09, 2014

YEAH! YEAH! YEAH! THE BEATLES FIRST ED SULLIVAN PERFORMANCE - FIFTY YEARS AGO





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“Ladies and gentlemen, the Beatles!”  With those five words and a payment of $10,000.00, television host Ed Sullivan may have singlehandedly changed the face of popular music in the world.  At   8:04 p.m.  on Sunday February 9, 1964, four long-haired lads from Liverpool starting singing on Stage 50 of CBS Studios.  Although not a completely unknown quartet, it was on that February Sunday and the next two Sundays, that The Fab Four became the faces of the “British Invasion” which forever changed the music of our lives.



The set list that night included, “All My “Loving,” “Til There Was You,” “She Loves You,” “I Saw Her Standing There,” and “I Wanna Hold Your Hand.”

Not all of the 73 million people, representing more than 45 percent of American tv households, watching that night were thrilled. Some didn’t like their long hair and  some were turned off by the screaming girls in the audience.   After a few years, many didn’t like their politics or their drug use.


But, millions and millions of American kids became fans that night.  And many still are.   Over their fourteen-years as a band and forty four years since their breakup, it is estimated that the Beatles have sold more than six hundred million record albums, 177 million in the US alone and 1.6 billion single records.  With a record twenty-one Number 1  Hot 100 singles, 45 Gold albums and 24 Platinum albums, the Beatles are regarded by most people as the greatest band of all time.

If you watched the show that night, you might not remember another musical performance.  The Broadway cast of “Oliver” sang  songs from the popular musical.  In the middle of the performance, an 18-year-old English boy from Manchester, England sang the part of the Artful Dodger.  As he stood on side of the stage, the singer began to hope that one day he would get the same reaction from his audience.  Two years later, in NBC’s quest to duplicate the Beatles, the young man and three others were signed as a quartet to star in a zany, musical comedy show, the Monkees.  The Monkees were the hit that the network executives had hoped.  And, that young man, Davy Jones, would rise to the top of the favorites list of teeny boppers in the country and around the world.

And now, fifty years later, here are some comments from Dubliners, past and present,  about George, John, Paul and Ringo and how they felt when they first saw and heard the Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show and how their music affected their lives.


THE TAX MAN COUGHETH

Ron O'Quinn, regarded as one of the best disc jockeys of all time and a member of the Georgia Radio Hall of  Fame, remarked, “Fresh out of the U.S. Army in early summer of 1963,  I was working as a deejay and music director at WMYR in Ft. Myers, Florida. We got a promotional copy of a group called The Beatles on the Vee Jay label. The song was "From Me To You". Vee Jay was a Rhythm and Blues label out of Chicago and these guys were obviously white boys. Cashbox magazine said “From Me To You” was a huge hit in England, but that meant nothing to us back then. Our listeners liked it, but there was no great clamor being heard about the group.

In late September I received another 45 rpm record by The Beatles, but this time the record was on the Swan label. The song was “ She Loves You.” Great song, and now our listeners in South Florida were paying attention, but most stations in America were not playing this group from England. In December the trade magazines started promoting this phrase, “The Beatles Are Coming". It was in every music trade paper I read and Christmas week, or maybe the week after Christmas, Capitol Record Company released “I Want To Hold Your Hand.” By the middle of January “I Want To Hold Your Hand” was #1 on Billboard, Cashbox, and Record World music charts.



The British Invasion had begun! I naturally was glued to the Boob Tube when The Beatles made their appearance on the Sullivan show that first time. I was instantly aware that there was something different about these young men, but I had no idea that I would be invited by their manager, Brian Epstein, to tour with them two and 1/2 years later on what would be their last American Tour.”

Only the most fervent Beatle fans will remember that the coughing sound, not edited out of the introductory chatter of the 1966 Beatles song “Taxman,” was indeed from Ron O’Quinn.



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P.S., I LOVE YOU

Every girl had their favorite Beatle.  Samille Swinson Posey loved all four of them. Rosemary Reinhart Digby was especially infatuated with their hair.

Gail Rogers wrote a letter and  got baseball card size photos of her faves.

“I still have the one of Paul with the words."I love you, Paul” on the back! When I hear the Beatles now on the radio, I feel as if I am 14 again!” Gail declared.

Karen E. Davis recalled, “I remember my mom and our neighbor talking (and laughing) about the Beatles over the backyard fence while they were hanging laundry. The adults thought it was silly and in retrospect, I'm surprised we got to watch the show. I remember my brother, Wesley Davis, and I danced in front of the TV, the twist if I recall correctly. We had fun but I couldn't understand why all the girls were screaming.”

“I think of that (night)  often. They had such a fresh look, a new, amazing sound and there was the exhilarating realization that music was headed down a new path!” Jan Edwards commented.

“We walked down the dirt road to a cousin who had a tv. I thought  I would grow up and  marry Paul. Silly girl, half the world thought that,” recalled Karen Gay Thompson, who turned 13 that day and she believed it was fate.

Marka Ann Brooks remembered watching the Beatles that night at a girlfriend's house because her dad wouldn't let her watch it at home

“I was sitting in front of the TV like all the other 9 year old girls! I can still hear Ed introduce them and see Paul shaking his cute head!” remembered Kay Middlebrooks Baeumel.

Renee Fraser’s daddy let her stay up past her bed time to watch, but Sue Christian’s daddy didn’t allow her to miss church that night.


THESE BOYS ARE BEATLES FANS TOO

Two Dublin teenagers who would later form a garage band known as the Ancestors, were dramatically affected by the Beatles.  Tom Patterson felt charged and renewed. Patterson, who hated the teenage music of Bobby Vee, The 4 Seasons and Connie Francis, realized the Beatles were getting their energy from black American southern performers like the genius Richard Penniman, aka Little Richard from just up the road in Macon.

“I remember the first time I heard a Beatles tune on the radio, and of course seeing all the Sullivan Show appearances, and then devouring every one of their records as soon as they were released. Not long after the first Sullivan show performance, I joined forces with the Tanner brothers to form one of several bands in what I like to call Dublin's late-1960s rock-&-roll renaissance. And the rest is, like they say, history,” Patterson recalled.

“The Beatles changed my life from Little League to playing in a band. Fifty years later, I'm still playing. They were a breath of fresh air. I saw Paul McCartney a few years back and the audience ranged in age from two to 70 - all of them caught up on the magic. I pity the people who couldn't enjoy them,”declared Edward Tanner, Patterson’s band mate and neighbor who was equally influenced by the Beatles.

Griffin Lovett, an inveterate Beatlemaniac, began to idolize drummer Ringo Starr.  The former Dublin High drum major and drummer, started his own garage band, “The Knights of Darkness” after being influenced by Starr and the rest of the Beatles.

Wayne Mullis was stationed at Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station in Hawaii. Mullis and his fellow Marines somewhat resented an invasion of foreigners.

“It didn't take long and we were as big a fool as anyone else,” recalled Mullis.


Dublin Mayor Phil Best, who was at his grandparents house when the show aired said, “ I thought it was neat. My Mama was on a trip to Atlanta with my Daddy and brought me back a Beatles wig. I look back at that and think about how cool my Mama was!”

I had a wig too.  I think my mother threw it away when the mice got in it and made a nest.

Al Rhodes was getting nervous as he sat in church with his parents.  But then, much to his surprise and amazement, the minister of the Methodist Church announced he was ending the Sunday night service early so the kids could go home and watch the Beatles on Ed Sullivan.

“It was a good night, got outta church early and saw the Beatles,” Al chuckled.

At first John Pike didn’t understand the hysterical frenzy surrounding the show and the Beatles.  “Honestly, I still don't. As time passed and I learned more about music, I came to appreciate their genius. They truly were great artists,” Pike asserted.


THE BEATLES INVADE ATLANTA



On a Wednesday night,  August 18, 1965, the Beatles made a flying trip to Atlanta Fulton County Stadium for a concert.  Some lucky Dublin teenagers and their reluctant parental chaperones  traveled to the brand new stadium to watch the Beatles perform from a stage centered on second base.

Among the  lucky ones from Dublin,  who got tickets for as low as $4.50, were  Edward Tanner who went with his parents, brother Blair  and sister Georgeanne. Dwayne Gay was also there.

Samille Swinson desperately wanted to go to the concert, but without her parents.  So after she purchased four tickets for $18.00, Samille asked her friend Mala Yeomans to go with brother Robert Swinson and his girlfriend Lynn Wolf.

“The day of the concert we all went to Atlanta and Daddy checked us into the Heart of Atlanta Hotel. Mala and I were beyond excited. Every time we heard sirens we just knew that the Beatles were coming by, and we wanted to chase the sirens. Our seats were in the 2nd level somewhere between home plate and third base. The stage was on second base. The anticipation before the concert was like something I'd never felt before. Of course, Mala and I kept thinking that we would actually meet them and they would fall in love with us! When they took the stage it was madness. They were so tiny from our viewpoint it very well could have been anyone else but the Beatles, but when they broke into "Twist and Shout" there was no doubt. It was over all too soon, but certainly ranks top of the many wonderful memories from that era,” Samille fondly recalled.

Vicki Fowler Lunceford inexplicably missed the Ed Sullivan Show that first  night.  But she did make it to  Atlanta to see them live in concert.

“What a trip!! I still have my program from the show,” said Vicki, who at another time that year traveled to Statesboro to watch the Rolling Stones in concert.

Monty Hester, recalled Griffin Lovett, made it all the way there hitchin’ a ride to get in to see one of the greatest  concerts in the history of the capital city.


THE PAN STILL FLASHES

Although the Beatles were adored by millions of American teenagers, they did not receive the same reception from the parents of these teenagers.  Myra Miles great grandmother wasn’t so negative.  “She liked them,” Myra recalled.

Mary A. Lewis was anxiously awaiting the Ed Sullivan Show that night.  Her mother had a different tune.

“My mother thought they were as disgusting as Elvis,” Mary recalled.


Herschel “Butch” Holmes father had a similar belief.

“My father thought Elvis was going to Hades.  He knew the Beatles were,” Butch harked back.

Pam Holmes remembered her father saying,  "You better not ever get in public and act like those girls are acting."

“My fourth grade teacher -- Ms. Earhart - proceeded to tell our class how atrocious this band was. We learned a new word. But still loved the band no matter how atrocious they were,” Kathy Hodges recollected.

“We were at a family friend's house with all the kids and parents. Of course, the girls (including me) were singing, dancing, and screaming. I will never forget that Daddy (Bill Andre’) said, "They'll last a couple of weeks," recalled Nancy Andre Ganderman.




Sunday, February 02, 2014

OTIS TROUPE


A Forgotten Football Hero?

Now that the seemingly - endless, overly - hyped hoopla of the Super Bowl is finally over, sit right back in your Lazy Boy chair and read the story of Otis Troupe, one of the best college football players you probably never heard of.  In the days before Jackie Robinson forever broke the color barrier in major sports, Troupe was denied the opportunity to play football in the National Football League.  No one will ever know the impact that this bruising runner and all around athlete would have made on the professional gridirons of the nation, but in his day and in his league he was generally regarded as one of the best black collegiate athletes in the nation and for a brief time was a star player of the fledgling Negro Professional Football League.

Otis Emanuel Troupe was born on August 29,  1911 in Laurens County.  His parents, Emanuel and Annie Hester Troupe, lived on the road leading from Dudley to Rebie, Georgia in 1920.  Otis was the grandson of Wallace and Charlotte Troupe, of the Hampton Mill District.    His family, including Quincy Trouppe, a legendary catcher and manager of the Negro Leagues,  descended from former slaves belonging to Governor George M. Troup, who maintained a plantation at Vallambrosa and at Thomas Crossroads north east of Dudley.    During the 1920s, the Troupe family moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey, where they  lived at 425 South Park Street in an ethnically diverse neighborhood.   Otis lettered in football, baseball, basketball and track and became somewhat of a legend in high school circles in New Jersey.

A talented singer, Otis received a music scholarship to attend Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland  which was at the time considered one of the finest black colleges in the nation. His athletic physique and strong bearing caught the eye of coaches Talmadge "Mars" Hill and Eddie Hurt.   Morgan State dominated black college football in the 1930s,  winning seven CIAA championships between 1930 and 1941.

Otis tried out for football as well as basketball and track.  He lettered in all three sports in his four years at Morgan State.  The Morgan State Bears captured the Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association title during Otis' entire career.  In 1935, team captain Troupe led his three-year unbeaten team to the Black College National Championship, earning All-American honors at full back in the process.  That same year, Otis was lead tenor of the famous Morgan State Choir, one of the country's premier collegiate choruses.  Under the leadership of Coach Hurt, Troupe's 1933 basketball team won the C.I.A.A. championship.  His track team won numerous championships.

Though he played in the shadows of Brutus Wilson and Tank Conrad, Richard Sorrell, a former teammate said of Otis, "he was one of the greatest all around running back  the game of football has ever had and I have seen them all."  He added, "Otis could not only run the football, but he could catch like a wide receiver, and he could be a devastating blocker for a team.  He also averaged 60 yards per punt."  Troupe also was the team's extremely accurate place kicker.

In 1936, Fritz Pollard of the Negro Football League's New York Brown Bombers selected the triple-threat Troupe to play in the backfield with Joe Lillard and Tank Conrad, two of the league's best backs.  The Bombers were named after the country's great boxer Joe Louis.  In the second year of the NFL's existence in 1921, Pollard became the league's first African-American head coach.  In 1933, the league banned the use of black players, denying Troupe, Lillard and Conrad the opportunity to play.  The ban lasted until 1946.

Troupe played for the Bombers, the most successful professional Negro League team,  for two years.  In 1938, while a coach at Howard University, Otis played part time for the Bombers, who changed their name to the New York Black Yankees to avoid confusion with the Chicago Brown Bombers.  He was selected to play for an all star team in a preseason game against the Chicago Bears in 1938, but couldn't obtain a leave from his coaching duties at Howard.

After his football days were over, Otis Troupe joined the District of Columbia Police Department.  He spent 18 years on the force before taking a job as an officer and counselor with the Federal government.    But Otis couldn't shake sports from his blood. He was a member of the Eastern Board of Officials and served as a referee for high school and college games in Washington and around the country.

Otis married Carolyn Holloman, a daughter of Rev. John L.S. Holloman, a North Carolina circuit rider and pastor of the Second Baptist Church of Washington, D.C. for 53 years, and his wife Rosa.  Carolyn Troupe was a well-known Washington, D.C. high school principal.  

Their only child Otis Holloman Troupe, a former football player at Yale, held an impressive resume' with a bachelor's degree in English from Yale University, a master's degree in Business Administration from Columbia University, and a law degree from Boston College.  The younger Troupe was appointed Auditor of the District of Columbia for two terms, after serving as a market analyst with Exxon Corporation.   His zeal for exposing fraud in city government prevented the completion of his third term in office.  In 1994, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Mayor of Washington, D.C..  He died in 2001 and was considered a lonely voice for honesty in a hive of corrupt D.C. government officials.

Otis Troupe died on August 31, 1994 in Washington, D.C. just two days before his 83rd birthday.   For his outstanding exploits as a star and team player, Troupe was inducted into the Black All-American Hall of Fame, the Morgan State Varsity M Club Hall of Fame, Eastern Seaboard Officials Hall of Fame and the Inside Sports Hall of Fame.  And now you know the story of Otis Troupe.  Try not to forget him. 

Saturday, February 01, 2014

GENERAL DAVID BLACKSHEAR

       If you were asked to list the ten most influential persons in the history of Laurens County, you would have to include the name of General David Blackshear.  In many lists, he would be near the top, certainly first in chronological order.   This is the story of a remarkable man, who as a child fought to defend his state from British invaders, as a young man braved the wilderness of the Georgia frontier, as a middle-aged adult, he  led armies to protect the fledgling state of Georgia from the British and hostile Indians in the War of 1812 and as a wise old sage, the old general guided the state through some its greatest trials and tribulations.

David Blackshear was born on January 31, 1764 in Craven County, later Jones County, North Carolina.  The third of eight children of James and Catherine Franck Blackshear, young David was reared in a home, seven miles above Newton on the banks of Chinquapin Creek near Trenton.  David's grandfather Alexander Blackshear came to North Carolina  as early as 1732. Blackshear arrived in the colony in the company of John Martin Franck and Phillip Miller.  They landed in New Haven.  As soon as they were able to secure sufficient transportation, the families traveled up the Trent River about twenty miles before coming ashore. There they found a wilderness west of New Bern, which had been settled in 1710.   They carried their  sole possessions with them since there was no stock for food and no horses for transportation.  These stalwart German immigrants immediately went to work building their homes.  Blackshear applied for and was granted a patent to obtain his land from the Crown. 

The Blackshears and their related matriarchal relatives were of German ancestry.  Alexander Blackshear made out his last will and testament on October 3, 1785.  In it, he named his wife Agnes and children, James, Eleanor Bailey, Elisha, Abraham, Sarah Clifton and a granddaughter Susanna Fordham, who apparently was a daughter of another daughter.  Agnes Blackshear died sometime in or shortly after 1793. John Franck and his wife Civel  had two daughters, Barbara and Catherine. Catherine  first married a Mr. Bush and had two sons, John and William.  Bush died in the late 1750s and his widow married James Blackshear.  James and Catherine had James, Edward, David, Elizabeth, Susannah, Elijah, Penelope and Joseph.  Barbara Franck married Daniel Shine.  The Shines lived ten miles above Trenton. Mrs. Shine was given the honor of entertaining General George Washington on his tour of the South in 1791.  

David and his siblings had a meager education at best.  Periodically a traveling teacher might be hired to teach the children the fundamentals of writing and reading.  Most days of spring and summer were spent learning the science and art of agriculture.  

Edward, born on January 20, 1762, married Emily Mitchell. He lived for a time in Montgomery County before joining the mass migration to Thomas County, where he died in 1829. Elizabeth, born on September 16, 1765, married Blake Bryan.  The daughter Mary, married the legendary Maj. Gen. Ezekiel Wimberly of Twiggs County, Georgia.  Susannah, born on May 27, 1769, married Edward Bryan.  Following his death in 1813, Susannah and her sons moved to Twiggs County to be closer to their family. Elijah, born on July 17, 1771, never married.  He died in Laurens County in1821 and is buried in the old yard at Vallambrosa.    Penelope, born on April 13, 1773, married Edward Bryan, and joined her sisters and their Bryan husbands in Twiggs County.  Joseph, the youngest child, was born on September 7, 1775.  He married Winifred, sister of Col. William A. Tennille, Secretary of State of Georgia.   He died in Laurens County in 1830. 

In the late spring of 1775, reports of the encounter between Massachusetts minute men and British Army regulars at Concord and Lexington reverberated throughout the backwoods of Jones County.  Militia units in the area forced the British to abandon New Bern, then the capital of North Carolina.  The British army under the command of General McDonald rendezvoused at Cross Creek on February 15, 1776.  Present were a force of 1600 men composed of Highlanders, loyalists and eleven dozen ex-Regulators.    The Blackshears and their neighbors did not take this threat lightly.  Guns, tools and any weapon capable of inflicting deadly harm were grabbed up by men of fighting age.  

On the morning of February 27, 1776, the loyalists were moving north across Moore's Creek some twenty miles north of Wilmington.  There as they crossed a bridge, partially disassembled to retard their progress.  They were met by a force of a thousand patriots who pounced upon them in utter surprise.  Expecting only light opposition as their column moved through the countryside, the Scottish Highlanders were dazed and confused as the North Carolinians assaulted them with deadly effect.  As the enemy chaotically left the field in retreat, they left valuable wagons, weapons and huge sums of silver coins.  Thirty enemy soldiers were dead. Some 850 more were captured.  The defeat at Moore's Creek effectively ended Tory activities in the area for years to come.    Present that day, probably somewhere in the rear of the fighting, was a twelve-year-old David Blackshear, along with his older brothers James and Edward.  The young warrior was also present at the Battle of Buford's (Beauford's) Bridge.  

After the battle, David returned home and for three months of school before being tutored by James Alexander Campbell Hunter Peter Douglass, an eccentric Scotsman.  In his latter years Blackshear related a tale about a time when the professor instructed the class to spell the word "corn," which his pronounced "korrun."  Each student spelled the word just as they had heard it.  Upon an examination of their papers, the Scotsman became so infuriated that he flogged every single member of the class and sent them home.   

David's oldest brother, James Blackshear, Jr., and his cousin, Martin Franck were appointed to raise a company of militia to defend their local area.  A scouting party composed of James, Edward and David, along with Martin Franck, Peter Callaway and several others, was sent out under the command of Captain Yates to locate, capture and kill, if necessary, a band of Tories.  The party stopped to rest for the night at the home of Col. White.  James, Martin and Peter continued on to James's home some five or six miles further away.  

Just as the men were sitting down for a well-desired supper, the house was surrounded by Tories.  James and Martin were taken out of the house, carried to the end of the lane, tied to stakes and executed without mercy.  Somehow Peter Callaway escaped.  A Negro man ran as fast as he could to Col. White's house.  Following closely on his trail, a band of Tories set out to destroy the remaining Whigs.   With only seven horses for fourteen men, Yates set out toward the Blackshear home.  Just as they left the gate outside the White house, they were ambushed by the Tories, hidden on both sides of the road, killing one patriot and wounding several others, including Edward Blackshear, who was shot in both hands as he was riding double with another man.  The Whigs scrambled for the nearest cover.   Captain Yates, his collar bone broken, fired and killed the Tory captain.   After the skirmish ended, the Loyalist leader was promptly, and without a moment's hesitation, tied to a stake.  A flurry of gunshots inflicted sweet revenge on the murder of  their compatriots.  

Those who have not studied the history of the American Revolution in the South do not realize the barbarous acts inflicted by Tories on the Patriots and vice versa.  It was the country's first Civil War, and unlike the conflict which would follow nine decades later, neighbors killed neighbors.

With the end of the American Revolution in 1783, the State of Georgia signed the treaty of Washington.  The agreement with the Indian tribes who owned the lands provided a cession of all the lands from present day Athens down the Oconee and Altamaha Rivers to present day Tattnall County.  The new county was named Washington in honor of the most prominent founding father of the country.  

David Blackshear, though lacking in any substantial mathematical training, developed an interest in surveying.   He taught himself how to use a transit, compass and protractor to survey land.   Services of trained surveyors were at a premium and the mapping and division of the new county of Washington drew the young man to Georgia.  He made several trips to Georgia, first in Wilkes County and then into Washington County.  Life for a 18th Century surveyor wasn't easy.  With no comforts of home, surveyors trampled through swamps, creeks, briar patches and were constantly in fear of attack by Indians, who still possessed lands west of the Oconee River.  

David Blackshear settled along the banks of the Oconee River about the year 1790.  He chose the perfect spot for a home, one just above the point where the ancient Lower Uchee Indian Trail crossed the Oconee River at Carr's Bluff.    Then in Washington County, Blackshear chose a tract of land with fine river bottom lands and a prime spot for his home on an elevated ridge.  The only trouble was that he chose a place which was subject to numerous depredations by some Creek Indian hunters who had been displaced from the lands some seven years prior.  Blackshear's grants of land totaled more than twenty one hundred acres, the largest being 1084 acres in 1793.    Grants of the latter's size usually indicated that the grantee had performed some public service to the state beyond the standard 287.5 acre grants given to soldiers of the Continental Line.  




Many of the conflicts along the lower Oconee River centered around Carr's Bluff on the eastern banks of the Oconee River in north central Laurens County.  Carr's Bluff is  relatively small in comparison with higher bluffs up river.  Its importance was derived from its location.  The bluff is located at the point where the Lower Uchee Trail crossed the Oconee River.  The trail was used by Indians in their travels between the Augusta area and lower portions of Georgia and Alabama.  The trail seems to have been used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and may have been in use long before then.  According to some early Georgia historians,  it was the path taken by the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, while on his expedition in May of 1540.

In 1792,  the clouds of war once again came into this area.  While negotiations were pending at Rock Landing, attacks continued along the eastern banks of the Oconee. Indian agent Seagrove went from village to village asking for the return of stolen animals.  In July,  Captain Benjamin Harrison had six horses stolen from him by Uchee Indians.  Harrison lived at Carr's Bluff, across from the present day Country Club.  Settlers in what would become eastern Laurens County stepped up their defenses.  An old Indian trail leading along the eastern edge of the river was used for border patrols.  This may have been the Milledgeville-Darien Road.   The settlers petitioned the Georgia governor for ammunition and forts.  The State built an outpost called Fort Telfair at Carr's Bluff on the Oconee River in 1793.  The people built their own forts arming their families and even their slaves.  On April 18, 1793,  the Indians raided the home of William Pugh near Carr's Bluff.  Pugh was the son of Col. Francis Pugh for whom Pugh's Creek in eastern Laurens County is named.  Pugh was killed and scalped in the attack.  Four horses were taken and one slave was captured.  The situation eased when the Oconee's waters rose, creating a natural barrier to an attack.

In the summer of 1793,  armies were being raised all over Georgia to protect against further raids.  Benjamin Harrison, a resident of the Carr's Bluff area, bore the brunt of these constant attacks of horse taking and killing of livestock. Captain Benjamin Harrison simply hated Indians.  Harrison once said "that there should never be a peace with the Indians whilst his name was Ben Harrison for he was able to raise men enough to kill half the Indians that might come to any treaty."  Benjamin Harrison is said to have been a frontier character with a patch over an eye and piece of his nose missing.  Harrison, a captain of the local militia, called his men together for a mission to retrieve some of his stolen horses.  The company moved along the Lower Uchee Trail until they reached the home of the Uchee King who promised him that the horses would be returned.  At another time, Harrison's men overtook a group of Indians taking three of their guns.  Timothy Barnard, the husband of a Uchee woman, convinced Harrison to return the guns and the matter was temporarily resolved.  

By October of 1793,  Harrison's ire had once again been raised by the Indians.  Captain Harrison's company and other companies under the command of Major Brenton set out from Carr's Bluff in defiance of General Jared Irwin.  Their destination was a Chehaw village on the Flint River.  Their objective was to capture any runaway slaves and stolen property.  They found the village defended by sixteen males and four slaves.  The rest of the men were in Florida hunting for game.  A battle ensued with two Georgians and three Indians being killed.

In early May of 1794,  Indian agent Seagrove invited the Lower Creeks and Uchees to return to their hunting grounds along the Oconee River while treaty negotiations continued.  That same month Georgia's war hero, General Elijah Clarke, was about to embark upon an attack on the Spanish at St. Augustine.  Clarke and his men were supported by the French government.  The expedition left from the upper Oconee area down an old Indian trail along the western side of the Oconee River.  The men camped at Carr's Bluff on their route to Florida.  Before he could invade, Clarke was convinced by the federal government to call off the attack.

On October 28, 1795,  Georgia and the United States were drawn into an incident which nearly precipitated a  war with the Creek Nation.  A small group of Indians had crossed the Oconee River and were visiting friends in a home near Carr's Bluff.  Benjamin Harrison, along with Mr. Vessels and their men, attacked the Indians, killing seventeen of them.  The dead, which included five Creek and twelve Uchee, were thrown into the river.  The next morning the Uchee rode along the Uchee Trail leading to the bluff.  They planned a retaliatory strike at dawn.  The Uchee surrounded Harrison's home.  To their dismay Capt. Harrison was gone.  They moved east attacking Bush's Fort with all haste.  Bush was a stepbrother of future General David Blackshear and lived in the area south of Ben Hall Lake along the newly created Washington/ Montgomery County line.  They captured the fort and killed one man.  The horses were taken and the cattle were killed. The Creek chiefs protested the killings to the Georgia government.  The legislature passed a resolution regretting the incident.  Harrison and his men were arrested for murder, but were never tried.

In February of 1796,  John Watts and his company of 17 men were at Hickory Bluff, two miles above Carr's Bluff on the Oconee.   The men received information on the 6th that Indians had been committing depredations along the frontier.   Some of the men started down the river in two canoes.   The first canoe was fired upon.  Joseph Blackshear, George Muse, and James Leonard in the second canoe heard the gunfire and quickly moved ashore.  The firing continued for fifteen minutes.   The next day Watts led a party to the scene of the incident.  There he found a decapitated William Foster who had his intestines and private parts cut out.  Israel Smith's bullet-riddled body was found skinned like an animal.  Isham Carr testified that he was a member of the party sent to investigate the theft of horses and sundry articles on February 8th.    He stated that the men on the land ran to the crossing point on the river.  The militia fired on the forty to fifty Indians, who retreated and fired from the high ground.  After a short time, the militia retreated when they feared they might be surrounded.  He went with Major Blackshear, Captain Blackshear, and others on the 10th to look for the missing men.  The men found  a small cache of three guns, a pistol, powder, and some clothing which they believed to belong to the Indians.   Carr found one dead man on the east bank of the river.  His scalp had been taken and it was presumed he had tried to swim to the east side of the river to safety.  Two men, Sparks and Leonard, were missing after the action and were presumed to have drowned in the attack.

While the negotiations for the Treaty of Colerain were pending, many of the hostilities ceased.  By the spring of 1797, the Indians were becoming impatient with the failure to bring Harrison and his men to trial.  They attacked Long Bluff a few miles above Carr's Bluff.   Isaac Brown (Vansant?)  had his brains blown away and was scalped at Bush's Fort in present day Laurens County in 1797.   Jeremiah Oates of Washington County testified that the dozen or so Indians carried off most of Brown’s belongings.  Brown’s wife was shot.  The Indians set the Brown’s house on fire.  Mrs. Brown managed to fire a shot which scared the Indians.  Despite her wound, Mrs. Brown was able to extinguish the fire.  The Indian leading the party had a son killed by Harrison at the massacre at Carr's Bluff.  In one of the last attacks in this area in February of 1798, William Allen was killed near Long Bluff.  

As early as the fall of 1797, David Blackshear was serving as a major of a brigade of militia.  By the end of the century, most of the hostilities had ceased.  Gen. David Blackshear complained of the small thefts being committed by Indians in the late spring of 1799.  No harm was done, but he thought the Indians were too insulant and mischievous.  He found the remains of a bar-be-qued pig at a camp site.  Blackshear was aggravated that the Indians were killing any animal they could find on his side of the river and that he had done all in his power to stop them without laying his hands upon them.  In one of the final clashes with the Indian people, two white citizens of Montgomery County crossed the Oconee River and took two horses belonging to Indians.  Gov. James Jackson wrote to Gen. David Blackshear who had command of this area.  One of these may have been ol' Benjamin Harrison.  Jackson gave orders to Blackshear directing him to arrest the offenders and not to resort to violence in the absence of any provocation.  Jackson reiterated the law against any Indians remaining on Georgia soil without permission.  The governor promised to back General Blackshear in any actions he might take.   

Pursuant to the approval of the Georgia Legislature on February 22, 1796, Jared Irwin, a fellow Washington Countian and Governor of Georgia, appointed Blackshear as Justice of the Peace for Blackshear’s Militia District on June 4, 1796.  Militia districts were formed primarily as a means of local defense against Indian attacks.  Each district was named for its captain, presumably either David Blackshear or his brothers Joseph or Elijah.  Three years later the Justices of the Inferior Court of Washington County renominated Blackshear to the position, which he served at least until 1808 and presumably until the boundaries of Laurens County were expanded to encompass all of his holdings in 1811.

Blackshear represented Washington County in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1797 to 1798 and again in 1804.  Nearly all of the records of General David Blackshear’s activities while he was residing in Washington County went up in flames in a disastrous fire which destroyed the county courthouse in the 1850s.  The early years of the 19th Century were relatively quiet in the number of so called Indian depredations.  This lull was not so much caused by a cessation of hostilities but primarily because the state of Georgia acquired all of the land east of the Ocmulgee River in the early years of the century.  Blackshear remained active in local affairs.  With the creation of Laurens County in 1807, new lands were opened across the Oconee River from his plantation.  Blackshear and his brothers, though not land lottery winners, promptly expanded their family’s holdings by purchasing fractional land lots along the river at a public sale held in the capital in Milledgeville.  In 1811, the Georgia legislature authorized the ceding of portions of Washington and Montgomery counties to Laurens County.  This simple act to compensate Laurens County for its loss of lands to Pulaski County was directly responsible for David Blackshear becoming a resident of Laurens County.   David Blackshear’s early years as a local patriot and warrior was soon to change.  In his last twenty five years of life, Blackshear would make outstanding contributions to his state that would make him one of the county’s most influential and important citizens in the 200-year history of Laurens County.



Known to many as “The Second American Revolution,” the War of 1812 began with a declaration of war by President James Madison on June 18, 1812 following a ten-year series of skirmishes at frontier outposts, impressment of sailors on the seas, and blockades of shipping.  It was on the 4th of July in 1812, some three dozen years after America first declared its independence from the King of England that soldiers of the Georgia militia rendezvoused in Dublin to launch an attack on British fortifications in Florida, which would not become part of the United States until six years later.

During its regular session, the Georgia legislature on December 9, 1812, appointed David Blackshear to command the 2nd Brigade of the 5th Division of the state’s militia.  Dr. William Lee commanded the first division.  

Blackshear’s first known call to duty came in early August 1813, when Georgia governor David Mitchell wrote the general to move his brigade to the frontier and adopt measures to afford some security for the fearing inhabitants.  Gen. Blackshear ordered Lt. Col. Ezekiel Wimberly to immediately man three forts: Twiggs, Telfair, and Jackson along the line of the frontier, then the Ocmulgee River.  Blackshear ordered Col. Allen Tooke of Pulaski County and Major Cawthorn of Telfair to immediately do the same.

The General set out on a patrol to inspect the forts and reported back to the Governor,  “I found the inhabitants in a high state of alarm - an immense number of whom had left and fled to the interior.”  Blackshear immediately began preparations to lay out an additional ten forts along the frontier, each manned by one subaltern, a sergeant, a corporal and fifteen privates and each approximately ten miles equidistant.

My mid-September, Gen. Blackshear reported that all threats of an eminent invasion had subsided, at least for the present.  By mid-November, tensions along the Ocmulgee once again began to rise.  Major General David Adams ordered Blackshear to send some of his best men to join a force of 157 men and  to go out to the frontier to make improvements to existing fortifications and erect new ones and to report his activities to Major James Patton at Fort Hawkins.

On January 4, 1814, the newly elected Georgia governor Peter Early, a former judge of Laurens County Superior Court, replaced the ailing General John Floyd with his old friend, David Blackshear to command the army from Georgia in the lower Flint River region.  Blackshear reported that a great number of his men were sick and that he needed substantial reinforcements to aid his 700-man force in guarding his forts and supplies, not to mention the effort to drive away the hostile Indians, all the Negroes, and the British forces at the mouth of Flint River.

Two years after the war began, Gov. Early reappointed Gen. Blackshear to command a brigade of first class militia along with Gen. Floyd.  Blackshear responded, “Sir, I am at all times ready promptly to accept that or any other appointment you may think proper to confer on me in which it is in my power to serve my country.”  

Just as was the case in previous Septembers, tensions along the Georgia frontier began to explode.  Blackshear ordered several units to move out from Hartford, opposite present day Hawkinsville.   Adjutant General Daniel Newnan informed Blackshear that 2500 men would be needed to support General Andrew Jackson, then in the vicinity of Mobile.  Several units from Blackshear’s command were detached for that purpose. 

Ten days before Christmas, Blackshear and his brigade received orders to move from their encampment at Camp Hope,  two miles  north of Fort Hawkins on the Milledgeville Road  in present day Macon,  to Hartford and then to open a road to the Flint River, where he was ordered to erect fortifications.    No one in Georgia even realized that the war with Great Britain officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve while Blackshear and his men were camping on the banks of the Ocmulgee.

Blackshear’s men spent Christmas at Camp Blakely, two miles from present day Hawkinsville before moving west toward his objective on the Flint River.  Blackshear reported that he arrived on January 6 “without forage and not many rations on hand.” Blackshear continued his march, oblivious to the fact that two days later, General Andrew Jackson’s command defeated the British at the war ending Battle of New Orleans.

With no instant communications informing him that hostilities had officially ended, Blackshear marched his men, many of whom were sick, south and west from their Flint River base.  On January 14, Blackshear received orders to return to Fort Hawkins.  Within a week, Blackshear was back at Fort Hawkins, where he begged Farrish Carter, of Baldwin County, to furnish him with 30,000 badly needed rations. Blackshear implored, “Our country is invaded; and I hope in God you will use every exertion in your power to facilitate the movement of the troops to check the insurrection and depredation that will ensue should we delay for want of provisions.”

Once resupplied, at least in part, Blackshear began cutting a road down the northeastern line of the Ocmulgee and Altamaha.  His destination was Fort Barrington on the Altamaha in McIntosh County.  Along his line of march, Blackshear’s men cut the legendary “Blackshear Road.”  

Reports of British activity around St. Mary’s were coming in from many sources. One of those sources was J. Sawyer, possibly Jonathan Sawyer the founding father of Dublin, who reported that the British were landing on Cumberland Island.  Sawyer wrote Blackshear concerning British atrocities  and their movement toward Darien.  

By February 4, 1815, Blackshear reported that he was some 132 miles from Hartford  or just a few miles from Fort Barrington.  Upon his arrival in Darien, David Blackshear reported, “We have been in a constant state of alarm, and the principal inhabitants, remonstrating against my leaving this station.”
Just as he was making plans to move toward the enemy, General Floyd wrote to Blackshear, “The official accounts of a peace having been concluded between our country and Great Britain appear to have filled the hearts of the populace here (Savannah) with joy.”  And, just like that it was over.  After formally winding up their affairs, Blackshear’s men were discharged and went back their homes in East Central Georgia.

As the military chapter of Blackshear’s life came to a close after the Indian Wars of the early 19th Century, a new chapter, his return to government service, reopened.  Blackshear’s power and influence led directly to dramatic changes in the history of the State during the first third of the 19th Century. 

Blackshear was elected in 1816 to represent Laurens County in the Senate of the State of Georgia.  He would serve ten consecutive one-year terms in the Senate before voluntarily retiring in 1826.  

Among David Blackshear’s closest friends was his neighbor to the south, George M. Troup.  Troup, who had served in the Congress of the United States for nearly a decade, moved to Laurens County at the end of the War of 1812.  Shortly thereafter Troup was appointed to serve the remainder of a vacancy in the Senate of the United States.  

Troup, an ardent supporter of State Rights, lost a narrow election to John Clark, his bitter political enemy, in the election of 1821.  At that time, the office of the Governor was filled by a vote of the members of the Senate.  Blackshear supported his good friend and protege  in all three of his gubernatorial campaigns.  The election of 1823 in the Senate was one of the most interesting and tide-turning elections in the history of the State of Georgia.

The election of 1823 would be the last time the legislature regularly elected the governor. The contest was bitter, divisive and fierce to say the least.  As the Secretary of the Senate called for the vote, each member rose, walked to the speaker’s desk and deposited their ballots in a hat.  The atmosphere inside the chamber was tense.  Passions peaked.  Betters placed their wagers.   Blackshear, the Chairman of the Committee on the State of the Republic who was frequently asked to act as President Pro Tempore, sat silently in his seat, emotionless on the outside, his heart throbbing on the inside. 

A deafening silence came over the clamoring chamber as the 166 paper ballots, one by one, were taken from the one hat and put in another.  To win the election, either Troup or Clark had to be named on 84 ballots.  With two ballots left, the votes were even at 82 for each candidate.

The clerk paused.  Everyone in the chamber rose forward in fervent anticipation of victory for their candidate.  The next ballot was for George Troup.  Only one ballot remained.  It lay face down in the bottom of the hat.  The President of the Senate picked up the hat by its rim, turned it over and exclaimed, “Senator Troup!”  


Historian William H. Sparks wrote, “The scene that followed this announcement in indescribable.  the smothered emotion of the multitude burst forth as the eruption of a volcano.  All order and dignity was lost.  Shrieks, yells, tears, and laughter all mingled in the wild commotion.  Men rushed into each other's arms, desks were kicked over; men rolled upon the carpet, whilst deep and bitter curses came from the opposition.  This turmoil defied the power of the speaker, and continued for twenty minutes.  When excitement had exhausted itself, and silence and order restored General Blackshear, who had remained silent and standing amidst the turmoil lifted his eyes toward heaven, and stretching forth his hands, said in a loud but trembling voice, ‘Now Lord, I am ready to die.’  This was the signal for the renewal of the extravagances of joy in cheers and shouts from all around.   The crowd surrounded the venerable general, blessing and caressing him until, overcome with emotion, with tears streaming down his withered cheeks, he sank into his chair, still saying ‘Yes, I am now ready to die.’"  

Blackshear continued to consult and advise Troup during his four years as Governor, often working with the Governor’s Secretary Mirabeau Lamar.  Lamar, who lived in Troup’s home down river from Blackshear, went on to become the second President of the Republic of Texas. 

  After his retirement from the Senate, the venerable statesman withdrew from the political scene.  He did return briefly to politics during  the presidential elections of 1828 and 1832 when he served as an Elector to the Electoral College committed to Andrew Jackson.  At the turn  of the 19th Century, Blackshear had served as an elector in favor of Thomas Jefferson.   In one of his last political actions, Blackshear was named Chairman of a Committee to fight prospective tariffs in 1832. 

Among the General’s most passionate interests came in the field of agriculture, particularly in the science of viticulture.  Blackshear consulted with his friend, Thomas McCall, in cultivating the finest wines made from a mixture of local wild grapes and traditional European ones.  Known as one who always offered his frequent and numerous guests a hospitable glass of wine, Blackshear planted acres of apple and peach trees to produce cider and brandy.  For those of his friends who did not partake of the alcoholic fruit of the vine, Blackshear developed a sweet tasting, non-alcoholic apple cider.

As one of the state’s most prominent men, Blackshear was often called upon to serve on various committees formed for the betterment of the state.  In 1815, the General was appointed by the governor as a commissioner for The Improvement of the Oconee River.  Blackshear had a personal, pecuniary interest in the project.   Blackshear put a lot of unpaid time and labor into the committee, whose goals were stymied because of the fact that capital of Milledgeville was established too far to the north to allow river boat traffic to the capital city.   River transport was critical to the shipment of the General’s plantation produce.  Blackshear, along with his brother, established several ferries across the Oconee River.  The longest of lasting impact was the  last ferry, which closed in the latter part of the 1940s.  

A friend to all, Blackshear played host to the executive, legislative and judicial officials of the state, entertaining them when there travels brought them to Laurens County.  Days were filled with feasts of wild game, toasts with the finest wines, and afternoon fishing in  the General’s bountiful fish ponds and lakes.








Among his close friends were fellow veterans of the Revolutionary War, John Shine and Peter Calloway, both of whom died while visiting the Blackshear home and whose bodies lie among those interred in the family cemetery.  

In his private life, General Blackshear, who bore an uncanny resemblance to Benjamin Franklin by those who knew him,  married Fanny Hamilton, daughter of John Hamilton of Hancock County, in 1802.  The Blackshears had eleven children, eight sons and three daughters.  Sadly all three of their girls died as infants.  Fanny Blackshear’s brother, Everard Hamilton, served as the Secretary of the State of Georgia under the administrations of Governor George Troup and John Forsythe.  



On July 4, 1837 on the 61st anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, the 73-year-old statesman died at his home , which he named Springfield.  He was laid to rest in the family cemetery near his house next to his Virginia born wife, who died on February 28, 1827. 

In describing Blackshear, his biographer, Stephen F. Miller wrpte. “David Blackshear was a man of quiet chivalry, never compromising with danger when duty called.  

Scott B. Thompson, Sr.
January 2014


PLAT OF DAVID BLACKSHEAR'S ESTATE